Lincoln, Lincolnshire

A major branch of the Kinloch family settled here in the early 21st Century.

Lincoln (/ˈlɪŋkən/) is a cathedral city and county town of Lincolnshire in the East Midlands of England. The non-metropolitan district of Lincoln had a 2012 population of 94,600.[2] The 2011 census gave the urban area of Lincoln, which includes North Hykeham and Waddington, a population of 130,200.[3][4]RomanLindum Colonia developed from an Iron Age settlement on the River Witham. The city’s landmarks include Lincoln Cathedral, an example of English Gothic architecture and the tallest building in the world for over 200 years, and the 11th-century NormanLincoln Castle. The city is home to the University of Lincoln and Bishop Grosseteste University, and to Lincoln City FC and Lincoln United FC.

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Earliest history: Lincoln[edit]

Brayford Pool

The earliest origins of Lincoln can be traced to the remains of an Iron Age settlement of round wooden dwellings (which were discovered by archaeologists in 1972) that have been dated to the 1st century BC.[5] This settlement was built by a deep pool (the modern Brayford Pool) in the River Witham at the foot of a large hill (on which the Normans later built Lincoln Cathedral and Lincoln Castle).Lincoln Castle

The origins of the name Lincoln may come from this period, when the settlement is thought to have been named in the Brittonic language of Iron Age Britain’s Celtic inhabitants as Lindon “The Pool”,[6] presumably referring to Brayford Pool (compare the etymology of the name Dublin, from the Gaelic dubh linn “black pool”). The extent of this original settlement is unknown as its remains are now buried deep beneath the later Roman and medieval ruins and modern Lincoln.

Roman history: Lindum Colonia

Newport Arch, a 3rd-century Roman gateMain article: Lindum Colonia

The Romans conquered this part of Britain in AD 48 and shortly afterwards built a legionary fortress high on a hill overlooking the natural lake formed by the widening of the River Witham (the modern day Brayford Pool) and at the northern end of the Fosse Way Roman road (A46). The Celtic name Lindon was subsequently Latinised to Lindum and given the title Colonia when it was converted into a settlement for army veterans.[7]

The conversion to a colonia was made when the legion moved on to York (Eboracum) in AD 71. Lindum colonia or more fully, Colonia Domitiana Lindensium, after the Emperor Domitian who ruled at the time, was established within the walls of the hilltop fortress with the addition of an extension of about equal area, down the hillside to the waterside below.

It became a major flourishing settlement, accessible from the sea both through the River Trent and through the River Witham. On the basis of the patently corrupt list of British bishops who attended the 314 Council of Arles, the city is now often considered to have been the capital of the province of Flavia Caesariensis which was formed during the late-3rd century Diocletian Reforms. Subsequently, the town and its waterways fell into decline. By the close of the 5th century it was largely deserted, although some occupation continued under a Praefectus Civitatis – Saint Paulinus visited a man holding this office in Lincoln in AD 629.

AD 410–1066

East Gate, Lincoln CastleMain article: Lincoln Castle

Germanic tribes from the North Sea area settled Lincolnshire during the fifth and sixth centuries. The Latin Lindum Colonia was shortened in their language, Old English, first to Lindocolina, then to Lincylene.[8]

After the first Viking raids, the city again rose to some importance, with overseas trading connections. In Viking times Lincoln was a trading centre with its own mint, by far the most important in Lincolnshire and by the end of the 10th century, comparable in output to that of York.[9] After the establishment of the Danelaw in 886, Lincoln became one of the Five Boroughs in the East Midlands. Excavations at Flaxengate reveal that the area, deserted since Roman times, received timber-framed buildings fronting a new street system in about 900.[10] Lincoln underwent an economic explosion with the settlement of the Danes.

Like York, the Upper City seems to have had purely administrative functions up to 850 or so, while the Lower City, down the hill towards the River Witham, may have been largely deserted. By 950, however, the Witham banks were developed, with the Lower City resettled and the suburb of Wigford emerging as a trading centre. In 1068, two years after the Norman conquest of EnglandWilliam I ordered Lincoln Castle to be built on the site of the old Roman settlement, for the same strategic reasons and controlling the same road.[11]

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